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For questions 1-8, read the text and choose the correct answer for each gap. Click on a gap and a choice of words will appear. Then choose the correct answer.
- An Ancient Hobby
Knitting, the act of using two needles to turn materials like cotton and wool into fabric and clothes, has existed for thousands of years. The world's earliest knitted items date from the 11th century. However, archaeologists believe that the activity has probably been part of human culture for much longer. It most originated in the Middle East, and is thought to have to Europe trade routes.
In recent times, interest in knitting has gone up and down. During the Industrial Revolution there was a decline in knitting, because new technology made it possible to produce fabrics much more easily. In the early 20th century knitting some of its former popularity. During World War I soldiers needed extra clothing, and there was a effort to make hats, scarves and other items for them.
With the rise of the Internet, interest in knitting has grown . Today, social networks and blogs help people up for knitting classes and join knitting circles. They also people to find new patterns and order supplies.
Read the text. Think of the word which best fits each gap. Write the correct word in each gap (9 – 16).
If you wander through a park or green space on a sunny day, you may come across groups of people taking part slacklining. This fascinating sport is extremely simple yet simultaneously very challenging. The goal of slacklining is to walk along a cord, or piece of flat woven fabric, has been strung between two trees. Nothing more, nothing less! For beginners, the cord is normally suspended approximately 1 meter the ground. Advanced slackliners can hang the cord higher, or even string it up buildings. The length of the cord can vary. a general rule, the greater the distance, the more difficult it is to walk from one end to the other. When people first try slacklining, they tend to a hard time finding their balance. , with practice they learn to walk greater and greater distances. Sports similar to slacklining have existed for thousands of years. The modern-day version is believed to from the 1970s.
Read the text. For questions 17 – 24, use the word on the right to form a word that fits in the gap. For each question, write your answer in the gap.
Young People Use Mobile Phones to Study Keyword List Students today are more connected than ever before. They have the Internet at their fingertips, and near limitless amounts of information are never more than a few clicks away. The impact of technology on young people's lives is a frequent topic of among , parents and even students themselves. It is whether this technology is having a positive or negative effect. What is certain, however, is that it is not going away.
The benefits of Internet access are agreed upon. More is the use of messaging applications such as Whatsapp and Facebook Messenger, which students are increasingly using to study. Alongside the books, pencils and papers that students have always used, mobile phones are now seen by many young people as an study aid. But are phones serving a purpose, or are they really a distraction? There is also the question of our online and how easy it is for people to access our private information.
For questions 25 – 30, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given.
- 25 I’ve kept the receipt for the shoes because you might not like the colour.
I’ve kept the receipt for the shoes like the colour.
26 I offered him a better price but he didn’t accept it.
He of a better price.
27 I enjoyed the film even though it was very long.
I enjoyed the film was very long.
28 Daniel accidentally broke the window.
Daniel the window.
29 The faster you run, the greater the chance you will have an accident.
The faster you run, the have an accident.
30 I have updated the list.
I have date.
You are going to read the following review of a new television programme. For each question 31 – 36, choose the correct answer.
New TV Adaptation of War and Peace a Success
War and Peace is regularly included on lists of the"100 Greatest Novels of All Time" and "Top 100 Books." However, the text is famously difficult. Originally published in the 1860s, it took Leo Tolstoy over six years to write. Modern editions have more than 1,600 pages and can take months to read. The book focuses on the lives of five Russian families during the Napoleonic wars. Besides having a complicated plot, it contains long philosophy passages that confuse many readers. A lot of people buy the book with the intention of reading it, but later leave it untouched on their bookshelves. If you're someone who has always said, "I'll get around to it…" you needn't feel guilty any longer.
In January 2016, the BBC released a new television adaptation of the novel. The series is an excellent way to enjoy Tolstoy's classic. It condenses War and Peace into six one-hour episodes, each of which focuses on an important moment in the story. The difficulties of editing down such an enormous text are obvious, and many parts of the story are left out. Still, the programme succeeds in capturing the spirit of the book. It is very entertaining without being too time-consuming. If six hours seems like a lot, remember that the 1972 adaptation of the text, also produced by the BBC, was almost fifteen hours long!
The new drama's first episode introduces viewers to the character of Pierre Bezukhov. As in the book, Pierre has unexpectedly inherited a large amount of money. This situation makes him desirable in Russian society, and many families want to introduce their daughters to him in the hopes that they can marry into his family. Surprisingly, Pierre is not at all interested in his wealth. Instead he is often thinking about life's "big questions" – how to live honourably and what it means to be moral. When he gets engaged to Helene Kuragina, who is beautiful but superficial, it is clear that disaster is in store for him. After their wedding Helene sets about spending Pierre's money, throwing lavish parties at his expense and buying unnecessary items, but she refuses to spend time with him one-on-one or start a family.
Later episodes represent Pierre's friendship with Prince Andrei Bolkonsky, a high-ranking member of the Russian army. Andrei is handsome and dreams of glory on the battlefield. When Napoleon invades Russia in 1805, Andrei fights in the Battle of Austerlitz. During the fighting he is seriously wounded. The series does a good job of highlighting the differences in Pierre and Andrei's personalities. Pierre is thoughtful and serious, whereas Andrei is courageous and bold. Pierre worries about how to find meaning in his day- to-day life, while Andrei focuses on achieving military victories. Some viewers will relate better to Pierre, while others will identify more with Andrei. In this sense the programme is true to Tolstoy's intent. Tolstoy wanted his readers to think deeply about their values and how they live their lives.
After Pierre and Helene's marriage disintegrates, Pierre falls in love again. This time the object of his affection is a girl called Natasha Rostova. Natasha comes from a noble Russian family and is spirited and innocent. She is said to represent Tolstoy's ideal woman. Unfortunately, Pierre's feelings are complicated by the fact that Andrei is also in love with her. As a viewer you can't help but become emotionally involved with the situation. Will Natasha choose Pierre, or Andrei? How will their lives play out?
Whether you are interested in Russian history, love great literature or are simply looking for an enjoyable drama, you shouldn't hesitate to check out the programme. The battle scenes, filmed in the Russian countryside, are very impressive. The depictions of Russian palaces and estates are also stunning. You'll come away with an understanding of the world that Tolstoy created and will learn something of the author's philosophy. You'll also be able to impress everyone around you with your newfound knowledge of the classic text.
31. In the first paragraph, why does the review say that the reader shouldn't "feel guilty"?
32. Why does the review mention the 1972 adaptation of the text?
33. What is the meaning of "superficial" in line 21?
34. According to the review, why are Pierre and Andrei important?
35. What is the purpose of the last paragraph?
36. Which group of people is the review targeting?
You are going to read Endless Winter. Six sentences have been removed from the extract. Six sentences have been removed from the article. For questions 37 – 42, choose the correct sentence and move it into the gap. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.
My sister and I had loved cold weather ever since we were children. When we were lucky enough to get snow in the small suburban town where we grew up, which wasn't often, we wouldn't hesitate to put on our warmest wool jumpers, ski pants, scarves and hats before running outside to enjoy it. . We made snow angels, built snowmen and attempted to crest down the slope in our back garden on top of plastic trays borrowed from the kitchen. We enjoyed these activities so much that the inevitable telling off from our parents was worth it.
In our early twenties, we discovered that there was a way for us to experience this kind of winter wonderland for months on end. A job posting in the student newspaper informed us that every winter, thousands of young people traveled to the most famous ski resorts of the Alps to spend five months living and working in the snowy conditions we loved so much. On a whim we decided to apply, and a couple of short weeks later we were on a bus with a team of other winter-weather enthusiasts. . It was the first time I realized that in less than a day I could travel to a world that was entirely different from my own.
In the resort, our job responsibilities were simple. Every Saturday, holidaymakers would arrive at Lyon or Grenoble Airport. We would drive down the mountain to welcome the guests, who were there to enjoy a week of skiing or snowboarding. On the bus ride back we advertised the services our company offered, which included selling lift passes and organizing ski lessons. . Aside from these duties, we had quite a lot of free time, and the other six days of the week could take advantage of our surroundings and get in plenty of skiing and snowboarding ourselves.
My sister and I had learned to ski as children, but we had never tried out snowboarding. . My sister stuck with it and was able to become quite good. Late in the season she even managed a black run! Meanwhile, my skiing ability improved considerably. We were also both able to master a bit of French, thanks to the friends we made in local shops and hotels. . She was famous in the resort for having broken a ski jump record at the age of just 13.
Those months in France were, without a doubt, some of the happiest in my life. My sister felt the same. . The only way to lessen our feelings of melancholy at the end of the season was by promising to return to the Alps the following winter. They say that living in the mountains changes you forever, and I couldn't agree more.
- We would also deal with the odd customer service issue, such as a mistake with a hotel reservation or a lost luggage incident.
- We became particularly close to a friendly waitress, Céline, with whom we've stayed in touch.
- Our manager explained that the guests would likely be quite tired when they arrived, as they had travelled a long way.
- The drive from the south coast of England to the mountain village of Alpe d'Huez took 18 hours.
- There was nothing like the feeling of waking up and catching sight of mile upon mile of snow-capped peaks, or of sitting by a crackling fire and watching happy families descend the slopes.
- On arrival in France I told myself I would make it my mission to learn, but after a couple of lessons I decided that it wasn't for me.
- Even if there were just one or two inches of snow on the ground, we would spend many happy hours playing there.
You are going to read the descriptions of how the young people spent their summers. For questions 43 – 52, choose the correct section. The sections may be chosen more than once.
A. Maria, 17 years old, Guildford
Last year, one of my teachers showed us a documentary about a turtle sanctuary in Costa Rica. I had never been terribly interested in science, but something about the film made an impression on me. After giving it some thought, I decided to apply to work as a volunteer there. The application process was easy. When I received an email telling me I had been accepted, I was overjoyed! On the other hand, my parents were less than thrilled. They thought I was a bit young to be going so far away. I managed to persuade them by explaining how important the centre's work is. The turtles are also absolutely adorable, so that worked in my favour as well. The best aspect of my time in Costa Rica were the many hours I was able to spend exploring local beaches and national parks. The scenery was stunning and it was very easy to get out and about. I had such a good time that I'm planning to return again next year. My mum, who has just retired, might even join me!
B. Peter, 21 years old, Nottingham
If I'm honest, I wasn't really looking forward to spending the summer in an office. My friends all had plans to travel and there's nothing I would have liked better than to kick back and relax with them on an exotic beach somewhere. Still, when the chance came up to do a paid internship, I felt that I couldn't really say no. I thought it would be a good way to get my feet wet in the professional world and maybe develop some practical skills. So I tried to go into it with a positive mindset, despite my reservations. It was hard work – it was a full-time position with a lot of responsibilities – but in the end the experience could not have turned out better. I learned loads and got along brilliantly with my team. My supervisor says that after I graduate there might even be the possibility to get hired full-time.
C. Annie, 19 years old, Aberdeen
Ever since I was a child, it had been my dream to buy a rail pass and travel overland through Europe. Over the course of the school year I had saved up quite a bit thanks to my part-time job, and when I finished my A-levels my family surprised me by chipping in and helping me purchase the ticket. In the weeks before my trip, I was so excited I could barely sit still. At the end of June it was finally time to set off. The first question people normally ask is who I traveled with. They tend to be taken aback when I tell them I completed the trip completely alone! I was originally supposed to go with a friend, but she backed out the week before we were due to leave. So in addition to seeing loads of new places, I was also able to experience solo travel and learn a lot about myself. The most interesting place I visited was Poland, but I also loved Germany and the Czech Republic.
D. Rowan, 20 years old, Sheffield
This summer, I had the chance to take part in an exchange program to Spain. I spent four weeks living with a host family in a town in Alicante. I couldn't have asked for a nicer family. My host mum and dad were incredibly welcoming, as were my two host sisters. Despite this, part of me wishes I had made a different choice. My main goal in travelling to Spain was to improve my Spanish, but in the town where I was staying there were a lot of other exchange students. As my host sisters were much younger than me, I ended up spending a lot of time with other foreigners, and I mostly spoke English. I don't feel that my Spanish skills got much better. Besides that, I had a tough time getting used to the Spanish way of life. For example, my family would often eat dinner after 10pm! I have fond memories of little mix-ups such as taking the wrong bus, or going shopping and asking for a "bathtub" instead of a "swimsuit," because in Spanish those words sound similar. So the experience wasn't a complete disappointment, but I didn't really achieve my goals.
43. regrets something about his or her experience
44. is planning to repeat the experience again in the future
45. had a problem at the last minute, but was able to overcome it
46. did not initially feel excited about his or her summer plans
47. had trouble getting used to a new daily routine
48. had to convince family members to give their permission
49. felt satisfied with the relationships he or she developed
50. was able to spend a lot of time exploring nature
51. found him or herself in humorous situations
52. was able to fulfill a long-term goal