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For questions 1-8, read the text and choose the correct answer for each gap. Click on a gap and a choice of words will appear. Then choose the correct answer.
- Why Follow a Vegetarian Diet?
Vegetarianism, the practice of not eating meat and fish, has been around for thousands of years. There is that the diet existed in India as early as the 7th century BC. Many other cultures, such as the Ancient Greeks, also had this . Today, it is common in many parts of the world.
Following this diet has many benefits. People who avoid meat and fish to have lower blood pressure than people who do not. They also usually have lower levels of cholesterol because they less saturated fat. Incredibly, a diet low in animal products may even certain types of cancer. If you become vegetarian, you must make sure that your body gets enough of certain nutrients. In particular, you need to track of your levels of iron and vitamin B12. If you do this, you will not face any health . Nowadays, more and more people are recognizing the advantages of this . This means it is now easier to become vegetarian than ever before.
Read the text. Think of the word which best fits each gap. Write the correct word in each gap (9 – 16).
- Pets for the Elderly
In the past, it was common for elderly people to live with their children and grandchildren. This meant that they could rely their families for help with daily tasks. Even important, families could spend time with older relatives and keep company. Recently, social changes have altered this arrangement. Today older people often live by themselves, means that loneliness can be a major problem. Luckily, a simple solution to this issue has recently been found.
Researchers have realised that owning a pet reduces loneliness and isolation. Dogs are especially helpful, but other animals also have positive effects. Pets be fed, given exercise, and looked in other ways. , they help structure older people's day-to-day lives. Owning a pet can also be a social activity. Walking a dog, for example, can be an easy way to meet people and make friends. Spending time with family remains very important. However, this is not possible, a pet can be a good alternative.
Read the text. For questions 17 – 24, use the word on the right to form a word that fits in the gap. For each question, write your answer in the gap.
A New Way to Read Keyword List Recently, e-book readers have become increasingly popular. Millions of them are sold each year, and experts believe that in the future this trend will continue. When they were first invented, many people the idea of reading on an electronic device. They argued that books were far superior, and believed that readers would never give up the of holding a real book in their hands. These were proven wrong, most likely because the devices have many advantages.
E-book readers give you and . They enable you to carry around hundreds, if not thousands, of books. When you finish one book, you can start another immediately. If you run out of books, you can download others using the "shop" function. Finally, they are educational. When you come across an unfamiliar word, you can look up its simply by clicking on it. If you have been debating buying an e-book reader, now is the time. These days they are cheaper than ever.
For questions 25 – 30, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given.
- 25 The idea that she has no friends is not true.
There the idea that she has no friends.
26 There’s no point asking Lynda to help as she’s really busy.
It’s asking Lynda to help as she’s really busy.
27 The holiday we had last year was better than this one.
This holiday the one we had last year.
28 Being late is completely inexcusable.
There late at all.
29 I still find it strange to pay for things online.
I’m not for things online.
30 She regrets starting her new job.
She her new job.
You are going to read an article in which a man, Jamie, talks about living in a new country. For each question 31 – 36, choose the correct answer.
A Different Kind of Holiday
When my friend Linda's alarm clock went off at 5am, I hid my face in my sleeping bag. Still half asleep, I hoped that she might not notice me and that I'd be able to stay in bed for five more minutes. As she climbed down from the top bunk, the bed frame groaned. That's when I saw that most people were already up and about. I raised my head and looked up and down the long row of beds. There were nearly a dozen people walking around, looking for lost clothing and packing their bags. Other beds were empty, their occupants having left long before. Slowly, I got up.
We had spent the night in a guesthouse in a village in northern Spain, and were on a sort of holiday. Linda had recently taken an interest in the Camino de Santiago, a lengthy hike that crosses the Iberian Peninsula. Each year, thousands of people attempt the route. Over the course of several weeks, or in some cases even months, they make their way to the city of Santiago de Compostela, located in Spain's northwest. Completing the route is no mean feat as, depending on where you start, the journey can last more than 500 miles. We had decided to begin in Burgos, a city in Spain's high central plateau. Many people would be walking much further than us, but we still had a tough journey ahead. To finish on time, we'd need to complete between fifteen and eighteen miles each day for the next three weeks.
Our first day of walking had made quite an impression on me. We'd trekked through what seemed like endless wheat and sunflower fields and had watched the wind sweep across the landscape. At one point, we had come across a herd of perhaps two hundred sheep, guided down a dusty lane by a single, rugged farmer. The beauty of the natural scenery was impossible to deny. However, I was shattered by the time we stopped for the night. Lying on a thin mattress in a room which was surprisingly well-adorned with a variety of ornaments and peculiar furniture, I drifted off into the most exquisite sleep. So lovely that it took a member of the wonderful staff to politely wake me in time for breakfast the following morning. In fact, in the midst of my slumber, I almost thought I was staying in a five-star hotel.
People do the Camino de Santiago, known in English as the "Way of Saint James", for all kinds of reasons. For some, it's a journey with spiritual significance. In the Middle Ages, the tomb of Saint James was discovered in Santiago. This discovery led religious believers to head to Spain from all over Europe. Another big draw is culture and history. Many of the roads to Santiago follow old Roman trade routes, and therefore pass a number of important monuments. Yet another group of people attempt the trip because of the physical challenge. Walking six to eight hours each day is a great way to get in shape.
Linda and I had several reasons for making the trip. We had known each other for many years but, between work, family commitments, and other obligations, had fallen out of touch. One goal, then, was to reconnect and engage in meaningful conversation, both with each other and with other people we might meet. Meanwhile, we were also keen to escape from the daily stress and the pressures of modern life. We wanted to spend time in nature and disconnect from the technological devices we were constantly attached to.
As I stretched out my aching muscles, I was aware that the training I'd done to prepare for the trip might not have been sufficient. However, I also saw that the weeks to come would be good for me. Even though it was only our second day, I already knew that it would be hard to go back to regular life. With that thought in mind, I picked up my bag and went outside, where the open road was waiting.
31. What does the first paragraph suggest about the narrator's feelings?
32. What is the meaning of the expression "no mean feat" in paragraph 2?
33. In paragraph 3, why does the narrator compare the guesthouse to a five-star hotel?
34. Why is the route the two friends are walking known as the "Way of Saint James"?
35. Which option best describes the narrator and Linda's relationship?
36. In the last paragraph, what does the narrator say she has realised?
You are going to read a story about someone who learns to drive. Six sentences have been removed from the article. For questions 37 – 42, choose the correct sentence and move it into the gap. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.
Out on the Road
Not long after celebrating my twenty-eighth birthday, I decided that I ought to finally learn to drive. I signed up for lessons at a driving school not far from my job. I finished work each day at 6pm, and arranged to have classes several evenings per week. I knew I would be tired at that time of day, but the prospect of a shiny license emblazoned with my name was enough to lift my spirits. Still, I was nervous when I showed up for my first lesson. Who wouldn't be?
For years, I had put learning to drive on the back burner. In school, I told myself that other things, such as my studies, or social life, were more important. In my twenties, I struggled to find time amidst work, family, and other commitments. My job didn't require a license, and when I wanted to get out and about I could rely on public transport. What changed my mindset was a conversation I had with my uncle. "You won't ever be fully independent unless you can drive a car," he'd said. That remark gave me pause. Perhaps I should reconsider my stance, and enrol in classes after all.
On the evening of my first lesson, the staff at the school did their best to set me at ease. I was introduced to my instructor, a chatty, middle-aged man named Danny. I liked him immediately. He wasted no time tossing me the keys to our white Honda Civic, and waited patiently as I fumbled to unlock the vehicle. Inside the car he advised me to adjust my seat, familiarise myself with the dashboard and check the mirrors. Even though I was a novice, he encouraged me to do things for myself.
The feeling of pulling out onto the road that first night is one I will never forget. The sun had just set over the horizon, and the first stars were beginning to appear in the night sky. The lights of cars in the distance made a dazzling pattern as they glimmered across the landscape. All this, and we were only moving at a snail's pace. I wondered how I would feel when the car sped up to 60 or 70 miles per hour.
Meeting Danny a few times per week, I progressed more quickly than I had expected. Before long I was able to steer the car more or less by myself, although Danny occasionally reached over to make an adjustment. One memorable evening, the engine stalled in the middle of a roundabout. I panicked, and then saw that the driver in the next lane was laughing. Danny restarted the ignition, and reassured me. "She oughtn't to make fun," he declared. "No one is born knowing how to do this." To recover from my embarrassment, I concentrated on the road.
A few months later, I felt ready to sit my exam. In the build-up to the test, my friends encouraged me by discussing trips we could take once I got my license. My family was similarly supportive. Nonetheless, my heart was palpitating when I arrived at the test site. Danny tried to calm my nerves, but to no avail. I wasn't used to driving in broad daylight, as my lessons had all been at night.
Needless to say, I didn't pass that first time. A careless mistake dashed my confidence, and led the evaluator to conclude I wasn't ready. When I presented the test for a second time, I continued to doubt my abilities. However, this time I managed to pass. I was at a loss for words when the decision was announced. I took a moment to collect my thoughts, and then called my uncle to tell him the news.
- Eventually, I resigned myself to not ever learning.
- Even so, I wasn't sure if I'd be able to afford my own car.
- I had never before perceived beauty in the haze of traffic and road signs.
- Most people go through this rite of passage as teenagers.
- I wondered if part of the problem was the time of day.
- However, the learning process was not without incident.
- They must have been used to dealing with anxious students.
Read the writers' descriptions of their lives and careers. For questions 43 – 52, choose the correct section. The sections may be chosen more than once.
Writers Talk About Writing
A. Betty Hamley
It wasn't my plan to become a writer, much less a writer of children's stories. I fell into the profession entirely by accident! A few years ago, I got into the habit of telling stories to my kids before bed. My youngest, Hannah, was having trouble falling asleep. I found that I enjoyed storytelling and had a lot of creativity. One day, to help Hannah with a school project, I jotted down her favourite tales and bound them together in a notebook. When she brought the collection to school, a fellow parent, who works as an editor, happened to see them. I couldn't have been more surprised when I got a call inviting me to a meeting at a major publishing house. Working as an author is a dream come true. So far, I've put out two collections of adventure tales. My next project is a book of fantasy stories, and will be released soon.
B. Theodora Johnson
I've always had a passion for crime novels, because I love stories with mystery and suspense. As a child, I was fond of a series about a detective who was able to solve tough puzzles. I was terribly upset when I finished the collection, because I couldn't find any other books that I enjoyed quite so much. Years later, this experience motivated me to write my own novels. I created a character called Detective Douglas, and based him on the protagonist of the books I used to read. Detective Douglas is clever, just like the character who inspired him. However, he is prone to making the odd mistake. I think this trait is one of the reasons he's popular with readers. People can relate to him because he isn't perfect. I haven't yet decided on the topic for my next book. It may feature Detective Douglas, or it might showcase a new character instead.
C. Amy Shaw
When I was in graduate school, I wrote my thesis about the great jazz musician Henry Fontaine. Normally there isn't much commercial interest in academic texts, so I was surprised when my advisor suggested that I try to get it published. Amazingly, my proposal was accepted by an important editor. It was harder than I thought to repackage my work for general readers, but in the end the title sold well. Since then, I've gone on to write two other biographies of jazz musicians, and next year am going to research a book about folk artists. I enjoy working as a writer and I'll probably stay in the profession, although I miss certain aspects of university life. The main downside to writing is the fact that it doesn't bring great financial rewards. It can be hard to predict when your next project will come up, so long-term planning is difficult. Still, I can't really complain, as I work from home most days and have a lot of free time.
D. Isabel Lee
I studied creative writing at university, and published my first novel not long after I graduated. The book focused on the lives of two sisters living in Yorkshire, and described the way that their relationship changed over time. I think the book succeeded because that kind of topic is one that everyone can understand. Later on in my career, I wrote other types of texts. I published a series of romance novels, for example, as well as some historical fiction. I can't say it was easy for me to make a living as an author. However, I do think it's harder for writers these days. People don't read as much as they used to, which means that publishers have to make tough decisions about which writers they'll take on. The phenomenon of e-books is also transforming the industry. I'm retired now, and when I look back on my career I realize that I was lucky. Besides being able to do something I loved, I was also able to travel all over the world via book tours and speaking events.
43. believes readers feel a connection with her characters?
44. explains that she is happy with her day-to-day schedule?
45. says that she is extremely happy to be working as a writer?
46. has written a lot of different types of books?
47. believes that the publishing business is changing?
48. wishes she could earn more money from her work?
49. hasn't made up her mind what she will write about next?
50. was able to travel because of her work?
51. talks about the process of making a career change?
52. had not originally intended to become a writer?